Daily Readings

The Song of God - November

enlarged 4th edition - 1984 - isbn 062007583 CYT, Cape Town, SA

Om Namah Shivaya

Om Namah Venkatesaya

November 1

deva and asura

16 - The path of knowledge - Daivasura Vibhaga Yoga - The Yoga of the Divine and Demonic Gunas.

XVI:8 - They say, this universe is without truth, without a moral basis, brought about without God, by mutual union, with lust for its cause; what else.
XVI:9 - Holding this view, these ruined souls of small intellects and fierce deeds come forth, as enemies of the world, for its destruction.

Even the devil's disciples have their own philosophy, for no one can live without philosophy, without an understanding, however crude, of the pattern of existence.
There is just this difference, however: the "deva" is one whose nature and hence whose philosophy is all light, in whom the light of self-knowledge shines brightly; while the "asura", is one "whose light is darkness" - in the words of the Bible.
That is what is meant by "asura" - he does not care to see.
He blinds himself and revels in the darkness of ignorance.
He is so thoroughly absorbed in the appearance, he does not care for the reality, for the truth.
"Asatyam", translated as "without truth", is the opposite of "satyam" and should mean "based on falsehood".
There are thousands in the world today who are convinced that "in this modern world, it is useless to be good," and that "one should move with the times, and nowadays untruth is the law."
They are incorrigible because their conscience sanctions untruth.
They have existed at all times in the history of the world.
In ancient times they were called the carvaka or materialists, with an extremely simple philosophy: "Man is born of the sexes coming together, he exists to immortalize this act and dies when it is no longer possible. All life centers around sensual pleasure."
It is not so much the philosophy, but its application that is dreadful.
Since pleasure, not loving service, is the goal, each man grabs as much of it as possible.
From whom?
From his own neighbor!
The asura's love of darkness does not even recognize a friend.
He is ruthless, relentless and remorseless, and it is dangerous to associate with him!
Pursuit of pleasure ruins both society and the pursuer who is part of it.

November 2


16 - The path of knowledge - Daivasura Vibhaga Yoga - The Yoga of the Divine and Demonic Gunas.

XVI:10 - Filled with insatiable desires, full of hypocrisy, pride and arrogance, holding evil ideas through delusion, they work with impure resolves.
XVI:11 - Giving themselves over to immeasurable cares, ending only with death; regarding gratification of lust as their highest aim, and feeling sure that that is all,
XVI:12 - bound by hope, given over to lust and anger, they strive to obtain by unlawful means hoards of wealth for sensual enjoyment.

They are the living exemplars of the antithesis of lord Buddha's "Noble Eight-fold Path".
The light within them is dark, their motives are impure, their ideas are delusion-ridden, their resolves are diabolical, and their thoughts and actions are governed only by lust for pleasure and power.
Since "falsehood" is their creed, they are not even true to their own self.
This is the worst part of their personality make-up.
With all their devilry, one should not be surprised if they assume an air of self-righteousness and quote the scriptures in their favor!
The twelfth chapter of the Bhagavatam gives a graphic description of such people.
By shouting aloud, they impress upon all that the untruth they utter, alone is truth.
Their haughtiness frightens away the humble and prevents anyone from pointing out that such overweening pride is contrary to all scriptural teachings.
Their arrogance grinds all opposition into submission.
But are they happy? No.
Their cares are immeasurable and end only with "pralaya"(translated as "death", but it may also mean "dissolution of the world").
They have no God to turn to for solace; money is their only God and hence they earn money by all means - mostly foul - and thus ensure that there is no hindrance in their pleasure seeking life.
They seldom realize that such life itself is hell here and now.

November 3

the razor's edge

16 - The path of knowledge - Daivasura Vibhaga Yoga - The Yoga of the Divine and Demonic Gunas.

XVI:13 - 'This has been gained by me today; this desire I shall obtain; this is mine, and this wealth too shall be mine soon.'
XVI:14 - 'That enemy has been slain by me, and others also I shall slay. I am the lord, I enjoy, I am perfect, powerful and happy.'
XVI:15 - 'I am rich, born in a noble family. Who else is equal to me? I will sacrifice. I will give charity. I will rejoice." thus deluded by ignorance,
XVI:16 - bewildered by many a fancy, entangled in the snare of delusion, addicted to the gratification of lust, they fall into a foul hell.

Krishna even quotes their words - a rare honoree not accorded to the pious devotee - in order that we may not even mistakenly utter such words.
Krishna does not dwell too much on the dark side of human nature, nor shall we.
But he has succinctly given the very essence of this side of nature, and it is good to realize that extreme vigilance is needed not to let the devil masquerade in holy garb.
How often do religious leaders in the world indulge in expressions like the above!
My Master often said: "Spiritual pride is the worst enemy of the seeker after God."
The Zen masters emphasized that "The ordinary life is Tao (truth)".
A saintly sister-seeker in South Africa, after pursuing much-publicized holiness, has discovered: "In a strange way my life has become a very simple one - in the little things I see perfection and beauty and fulfillment."
The spiritual path is regarded as the "razor's edge", not because it may cut one's foot, but because it is the imperceivably subtle middle path which cannot be seen by the naked eye.
The holy ones tread this path of life with their inner eye, the insight, open.
As long as this insight is allowed to function without distortion or diversion by the mind, so long holiness prevails. Holiness is as simple as that.

November 4

three types of yajna

16 - The path of knowledge - Daivasura Vibhaga Yoga - The Yoga of the Divine and Demonic Gunas.

XVI:17 - Self-conceited, stubborn, filled with the pride and fuddle of wealth, they perform sacrifices in ostentation, contrary to scriptural ordinances.
XVI:18 - Given over to egoism, power, haughtiness, lust and anger, these malicious people hate Me in their own bodies, and those of others.

Three types of yajna (sacrifices) are specially mentioned in the Bhagavad Gita:
(i) Jnana yajna (dissemination of spiritual knowledge) which is dear to the Lord .
(ii) Japa yajna (repetition of the divine name or mantra) which is the Lord's own special manifestation, and
(iii) Nama yajna which may mean either sacrifice merely in name, i.e. without the spirit or divine purpose behind it, or sacrifice for the sake of winning name and fame (publicity stunt).
The last is diabolical.
It is not the action itself that counts in the eyes of the Lord, but the spirit that motivates it.
Hence, the sacrifice and the charity that these demons perform do not please him, for even these are geared to the destruction of others.
Their charity is like the "free gifts" and "prizes" offered by rival firms as part of their sales promotion programs, aimed at the destruction of others' business.
Elsewhere in the Gita it has been said that even they who hate God (and thus think of him constantly) also reach him.
The hatred of the demons does not amount to that.
They "hate me in their own bodies and those of others".
The first takes the form of a reluctance to turn within and live for even a short while a day with one's own self (they take a transistor radio to disturb the peace of the seaside or public park); the second implies exploitation and cruelty shown to others, without recognizing that in them, too, there is the spark of God.
The description of the diabolical state comes to an end with these verses.
May we never approach it in thought, word or deed!

November 5


16 - The path of knowledge - Daivasura Vibhaga Yoga - The Yoga of the Divine and Demonic Gunas.

XVI:19 - These cruel haters, the worst among men in the world, are cast by me into the ocean of material existence, into various demoniac species of life.
XVI:20 - Entering into demoniacal wombs, and deluded birth after birth, not attaining Me, O Arjuna, they sink down to an abominable existence.

Even the wicked ones have a human garb - let us not forget that.
But their inmost personality (the "bhava") is that of a demon.
There, they deserve (and desire?) only birth as demons.
There is no injustice in this. Naturally, therefore, our next birth will be in accordance with the "bhava" (innermost nature) of our being.
The'wombs of demons' may very well mean "houses of power and affluence".
The answer to the oft-asked question "Why do wicked men prosper?" is "So that they may commit more crimes and descend into the lowest depths sooner - and so that eventually they may rise from there sooner, too, and be redeemed."
Injustice is man's invention; God is just.
"Cannot God avoid all this and directly redeem the sinner?" asks a friend.
Yes, of course he can, as the exceptional cases in our legends prove, but having bestowed on man intelligence and free-will, God would rather let the soul lovingly, knowingly and deliberately choose to love him, even after some amount of painful wandering in lower births.
"A condition still lower than that" is what is popularly called "hell".
This is not outside God's creation, but inside it.
It is a state of being which is "farthest from light", a plane of existence farthest from the divine.
Such hell may be within the heart of man, in the darkest corners of a guilty conscience, in the vicious dens of modern living or in a far distant planet or star.
"Farthest" does not necessarily imply spatial distance; a person standing close to light but facing away from it with blindfolded eyes, is farthest from that light!
Hell may exist in all these forms; one need not necessarily cancel the other!

November 6


16 - The path of knowledge - Daivasura Vibhaga Yoga - The Yoga of the Divine and Demonic Gunas.

XVI:21 - Triple is the gate of this hell, destructive of the self; lust, anger, and greed; therefore, one should abandon these three.
XVI:22 - A man who is liberated from these three gates to darkness, O Arjuna, practises what is good for him, and thus goes to the supreme goal.

The expression used in the first verse is "hell" while that used in the second verse is "gate to darkness".
The significance of the synonym is clear.
Hell is a state of ignorance: ignorance of the meaning and purpose of human birth, ignorance of the spirit encased in the physical body, ignorance of man's place and his duty in society.
These two verses do not exclude the idea of there being a heaven and hell in outer space, but just as feasible is the attitude that, since in our materialistic times spiritual ignorance has enormously increased the number of sinners, the great cities - those creations of materialism - are virtually our hells; and our heavens, so rare and few, are those places of retreat such as my Master's monastery in the Himalaya.
The darkness of city life is the darkness of spiritual ignorance; and the contented harmony of such withdrawn groups of people who are consciously practicing the rules of the spirit, heavenly bliss.
From our position on this earth, there are four gates leading out.
Three of them open out to hell.
They are: lust (all sorts of desires), anger (hatred) and greed.
The ignorance-blinded man goes out through one or other of these gates and arrives in hell where he suffers self-destruction.
Has he not destroyed a precious opportunity to attain self-realization?
These three gates are open wider than the fourth that the ignorant man does not perceive at all.
This gate leads to the heaven of redemption and is the gateway of goodness.
In order to pass through this gate one should carefully lead a good life, willing to sacrifice temporary pleasure in favor of eternal bliss.

November 7

'knowledge' is your authority

16 - The path of knowledge - Daivasura Vibhaga Yoga - The Yoga of the Divine and Demonic Gunas.

XVI:23 - He who, casting aside the ordinances of the scriptures, acts under the impulse of desire, attains neither perfection nor happiness nor the supreme goal.
XVI:24 - Therefore, let the scripture be the authority in determining what ought to be done and what ought not to be done. Having known what is said in the ordinance of the scriptures, you should act here in this world.

Narada in his Bhakti Sutras declares that saints (the supreme devotees of the Lord) invest scripture with authority.
Scripture itself has the sage for its author, the sage for its model and the sage as its goal.
It is, therefore, reliable and serves not only as an indicator of the "supreme goal", but as the only tangible trail (barring its living embodiment, the guru) of the intangible and subtle middle path.
By telling us what to do and what not to do, the scripture simplifies the greatest problem, indirectly suggesting the solution; and by turning our disciplined gaze inwards, helps us rediscover the middle path ourselves.
If the scripture itself creates problems, that is what it is meant to do; the solution should ultimately come from within.
The navigator depends upon the charts; but the charts will not steer for him!
In the sea of life, steering is trickier than in the field of navigation.
The primary object of the scripture is to halt the waywardness of the mind and to curb the egoistic will and its determination to execute its diabolical intentions.
To follow the scripture is freedom from slavery to the dictates of one's own ego - the worst of all slave drivers and tyrants.
However, blind obedience will defeat the scripture's purpose; one should not cease to exercise one's own intelligence.
As the great master Shankaracharya has stated: the scripture is of no use to the enlightened one who is already wise, nor to the fool who is not going to change.
Krishna asks those in between to "know what is said" in the scripture, whatever it may be, and then act.
Neither the ego, nor the scripture, nor an external being is your authority; only this "knowledge" is your authority.
The real seeker after truth will find the same message in the Bible, the Bhagavad Gita or any other scripture.

November 8

a realistic idealist

17 - The path of knowledge - Sraddhatraya Vibhaga Yoga - The Yoga of Divion of Threefold Faith.

XVII:1 - Arjuna said : Those who, setting aside the ordinances of the scriptures, perform sacrifice with faith, what is their condition, O Krishna? Is it that of Sattwa, Rajas or Tamas?

The Indian philosopher does not encourage evil but he does recognize its inevitable presence in society.
He aims at a perfect society, but realizes that this itself means taking note of the existing imperfections.
He is a realistic idealist.
He is like the wise schoolmaster who wants his students to pass the examination with distinction, but does not expect them to be brilliant on the day of their admission to the school; and is patient enough to correct their errors during their school career.
To adhere to the injunctions of a scripture is, of course, the simple, ideal course.
However, there are those who do not; and whatever be the reason, not all of them are diabolical in their outlook on life.
The revisions and editions of a scripture generate suspicion in the heart of some.
The primitiveness of a scripture shocks others.
A third group may well ask: "When we have the open book of life in front of us, why need we waste our time on other scriptures?"
Still another group may be illiterate and hence cannot study a scripture and may, at the same time, not be able to enjoy the privilege of hearing the scripture from someone else, particularly someone who inspires their confidence.
Life teaches you, if you have faith.
Faith is most important.
Your own inner equipment will fit you into one or other of the three qualities of nature.
Sattva-based activity will increase sattva; tamas-based activity will intensify darkness.
The former, by bestowing peace and happiness, will confirm the faith into conviction; the latter, by bringing restlessness and misery in its train, will be detected by the inner faith as the path to be abandoned but only if there is genuine faith.
This faith is not a religious cult or a doctrine or a dogma.
It is light in the midst of darkness which leads you from falsehood to truth.
Even the most unorthodox are not barred from salvation!

November 9

belief, faith and conviction

17 - The path of knowledge - Sraddhatraya Vibhaga Yoga - The Yoga of Divion of Threefold Faith.

XVII:2 - The Blessed Lord said : Threefold is the faith of the embodied, which is inherent in their nature - satvic, rajasic, and tamasic. Now hear about these.
XVII:3 - The faith of each is in accordance with his nature, O Arjuna. The man consists of his faith; as the faith is, so is he.

Faith exists in everyone in three stages: belief, faith and conviction.
You believe in your neighbor's words; you have faith in what the guru says; but you are convinced of your own personal experience.
Of these, belief is the weakest, conviction the strongest, but faith exists in the hearts of all.
It is faith that forms the character of a person.
If the person lacks character, it is not so much because his faith is weak, but because he has faith in his weakness!
One's own deeds of past births endow one with the type of faith that is inherent, innate to one's nature.
The universal human weakness of self-justification might blur one's vision and lead to self-over-estimation; but the cautious man is easily able to detect the hidden springs of his character and determine which quality of nature is predominant in him.
This, like the color of one's skin or eyes, is not a fault or disqualification; that is the most important thing to remember.
There is no "normal" person in this world; and, of course, each man is "normal" to his own nature!
The psychologist's "sword" of "abnormality" has ruined the life of many, stifling talents and compelling the psychologist-disapproved characteristics to commit suicide.
Abnormality rarely exists in nature, but abounds in the psychiatrist's clinic, created and confirmed by him. Self-understanding will promote self-culture and self-realization.
One need not fit into another's jacket, but one must be true to one's own self and grow in the image of God - that which one essentially is.
Jealousy, envy and imitation are a waste of time and lead to psychological suicide.

November 10

grow steadily

17 - The path of knowledge - Sraddhatraya Vibhaga Yoga - The Yoga of Divion of Threefold Faith.

XVII:4 - The Sattwic men worship the gods; the Rajasic men worship the demons; the Tamasic men worship the ghosts.

We should not commit the grievous error, here, of considering that the tamasa people deliberately choose to worship ghosts!
Not at all.
That is their idea of God.
Even the "gods" are the reflections of different aspects of the supreme being in the medium of maya and therefore not really real.
Consequently, they are classifiable into sattvika, rajasa and tamasa.
The good or the "benevolent" gods are sattvika; wrathful and emotional gods are rajasa; and the semi-divine beings of malevolent nature are tamasa.
They are not essentially different from him, the supreme being; for, let us not forget for a single moment that naught exists but he.
Lord Krishna himself has pointed out that even they who worship these other gods worship him only, though the wrong way.
They are the light of the divine looked at through different filters.
The word "worship" is important here.
No one worships any but God.
The aspect of God 'visible' to the individual is that aspect which he is capable of perceiving.
This capability is determined by his innate nature or the quality that is predominant in him.
A clear understanding of this doctrine enables us to grow.
The child does not grow into an adult merely by throwing the doll away.
The subtle inner transformation (growth) continues steadily.
Swami Sivananda used to say very often: "I have sown the seed, it will germinate in its own time. Even if the man does whatever he likes, it will work."
Hence, Krishna warns us: "Do not disturb anyone's faith, but help him grow inwardly."
At each stage, it is God who is worshipped and who accepts that worship if it is offered in full faith.

November 11


17 - The path of knowledge - Sraddhatraya Vibhaga Yoga - The Yoga of Divion of Threefold Faith.

XVII:5 - Those men who practise terrific austerities not enjoined by the scriptures, given to hypocrisy and egoism, impelled by the force of lust and attachment,
XVII:6 - Senseless, torturing all the elements in the body and me also, who dwells in the body, know you these to be of demoniacal resolves.

These two verses properly belong to the previous chapter!
They contain enough food for a world of thought.
Zimmer, in his book on The Philosophies of India, feels that "The practice of Tapas belongs to the pre-Aryan, non-Vedic heritage of archaic Indian asceticism."
When you bear in mind that Krishna (the dark one) is often regarded as of non-Aryan stock, the puzzle is even more puzzling.
Zimmer rightly claims that the Gita- represents the fusion of all the then-existing cultures and religious faiths - the scripture for the next age.
Spectacular asceticism is not unknown in other parts of the world.
When emperor Constantine recognized Christianity, some of the "faithful", fearing the evaporation of the true Christian spirit in its exposure to political heat, "renounced" the world and lived an extremely austere life in deserts and forests.
St. Anthony was one of them; and even when he eventually came out to preach, he preached extreme asceticism.
It has been said: "With some of these men it is obvious that ascetic discipline had become perverted into an unpleasant form of exhibitionism."
And this is true of their kin in other religions, too.
In Hindu mythology demons are often described as great tapasvin (men of austerity)!
Such ascetic practices as standing in freezing water or sitting on burning sands are against nature.
As Krishna says here, they "torture the body and me also who dwells in the body."
Instead of purifying the self, they strengthen the ego and are therefore a block to insight - the key to God-realisation.
Asceticism on the one hand and sense-indulgence on the other are to be avoided; the middle path is the Gita's.

November 12


17 - The path of knowledge - Sraddhatraya Vibhaga Yoga - The Yoga of Divion of Threefold Faith.

XVII:7 - The food also which is dear to each is threefold, as also sacrifice, austerity and alms-giving. Hear you the distinction of these.
XVII:8 - Foods which increase life, purity, strength, health, joy and cheerfulness, which are oleaginous and savoury, substantial and agreeable, are dear to the sattwic people.
XVII:9 - The foods that are bitter, sour, saline, excessively hot, dry, pungent and burning, are liked by the rajasic, and are productive of pain, grief and disease.
XVII:10 - That which is stale, tasteless, putrid, rotten and impure, is the food liked by the tamasic.

The classification of food is clear enough to need no comment.
There are two important points in these four verses that should not go unnoticed.
The first is: Krishna mentions that certain foods "increase life" - which makes one wonder by what standard the life span is fixed.
Krishna seems to have forestalled the modern biologist by recognizing the "biological age" and by formulating rules that will decelerate the speed with which death overtakes the living organism.
This is the most effective answer to anyone who thinks we are fatalists.
The second is the assertion that only the tamasa or dull-witted, stupid people will like "stale" food (literally, "food cooked over three hours previously").
The refrigerator does the mischief here.
While it arrests decay, it is unable to preserve the life-giving freshness of even fruits.
It is worse with flesh (not that we encourage flesh eating!) which develops toxic qualities.
Furthermore it prevents charity!
While the ancient villager distributed the surplus to poor people and animals, the modern housewife preserves it in the refrigerator.
Krishna does not condemn any, but he merely points out who likes what!
It is for you to choose.
If you choose the tamasa, you are at liberty to; but know where it leads you.

November 13


17 - The path of knowledge - Sraddhatraya Vibhaga Yoga - The Yoga of Divion of Threefold Faith.

XVII:11 - That sacrifice which is offered by men without desire for reward, as enjoined by the ordinance, with a firm faith that to do so is a duty, is satvic or pure.
XVII:12 - The sacrifice which is offered, O Arjuna, seeking a reward and for ostentation, know you that to be a rajasic.
XVII:13 - The sacrifice performed in defiance of scriptural injunctions, in which no food is distributed, no hymns are chanted and mantras are recited, and no remunerations are made, and which is faithless, that sacrifice is tamasic.

This covers all forms of rituals and worships and could eventually be extended to embrace all departments of life itself.
It is easy to understand who performs the sattvika and the rajasa types of sacrifices, and why.
But it is difficult to understand the true significance of the tamasa type.
If I had not witnessed them, I would have refused to believe such a thing possible!
The ritual lacks scriptural sanction.
No one concerned with its performance knows any mantra.
The whole thing is a big farce and the carnival spirit prevails; and hence no one even thinks of charity (gifts of food, etc.), which might at least provide a relieving feature.
On top of it all, the performer and those concerned have not the least faith in the ritual.
Result: all sorts of sacrilegious words and deeds in the name of God and dharma.
If all this had been done for the sake of earning name and fame, it would at best become rajasa.
But no. It is done mechanically, prompted by a nebulous idea: "My grandfather used to do something like this."
This carcass of a ritual is without justification for its existence.
We should have the courage to revive the spirit of it, if at all possible, or bury it, replacing it by more meaningful rites.
Rituals have great spiritual value.
They can effect a spiritual revolution within, if correctly performed.

November 14

constant vigilance

17 - The path of knowledge - Sraddhatraya Vibhaga Yoga - The Yoga of Divion of Threefold Faith.

XVII:14 - Worship of the gods, the twice-born, the teachers and the wise, of purity, of straightforwardness, celibacy, non-injury - these are called the austerities of the body.

Tapas is "heat, burning fire".
This fire has three functions symbolized in the three aspects of sakti (God as mother): Durga, Lakshmi and Sarasvati.
The "destructive" Durga burns impurities; the benign Lakshmi purifies; and Sarasvati the goddess of wisdom illumines.
This classification is no gradation of importance!
One is as important as the other.
If illumination is regarded as the most important, it should be remembered that it can come only after the destruction of the baser nature - which is, therefore, more important!
The practices mentioned here will effect this threefold miracle in the physical part of our being.
"Worship of the twice-born" might include those who are "born again" in God, those who are God's devotees and saints, and need not necessarily be taken to refer to the higher castes.
In India, even when the caste system prevailed, there were many "low-caste" saints who were adored by people of higher castes!
When all our talents and faculties are God-ward directed, when they are restrained from wandering along the pleasure grooves of sense-enjoyments, the threefold inner transformation is effected.
It should be remembered that while it is essential that the senses (the external physical organism) should be controlled, it is useless to waste one's inner powers foolishly suppressing their natural urges such as hunger.
The impulse to suppress any natural urge is often a very strong ego.
Once again, the invisibly subtle middle path must be clearly seen, by the grace of God, and carefully trodden.
The only aids in this spiritual march to the goal are constant vigilance, faith and sincerity.
Our Master always stressed the fact that if we take care of the positive side (e.g. worship of the gods), the negative aspects(e.g. Just, anger) will die a natural death.
Otherwise, vain is the struggle to eradicate evil.
The middle path cannot be seen physically or automatically.
"Constant vigilance" (in the words of my Master) is needed, and that itself is the path, the march and the goal.

November 15

austerity of speech

17 - The path of knowledge - Sraddhatraya Vibhaga Yoga - The Yoga of Divion of Threefold Faith.

XVII:15 - Speech which causes no excitement and is truthful, pleasant and beneficial, and the practice of the study of the Vedas, are called austerity of speech.

Have you seen the mild and watery cucumber igniting, by its root, the grass hidden in rags?
I have!
There sits the cucumber, smooth tongued, smooth skinned, hand-picking his extra polite words to fulfil a double purpose: on the one hand to gain admiration for his "saintliness" from the easily beguiled, on the other to inflame the heart of the person who sees through him.
The picture he thus achieves is of a saintly man confronted by a vicious creature.
But the Lord, seated in the hearts of both, knows that if the "saint's" provocation is subtle, it is infallibly powerful and hence he shares the guilt with the roused.
It is not that the other man is free from guilt!
Fewer of such hypocrites would much enhance the peace of the world.
If your speech is provocative, you share the guilt of the provoked.
The ideal of truth has been debated ad infinitum.
It has been pointed out that tradition (sometimes hacked by scriptural (?) authority) condones untruth in certain special circumstances.
It has also been argued that if we soften truth to make it pleasant, we shall ruin discipline and promote villainy.
No one expects us to be metamorphosed into saints overnight!
Hence, here and there in "scriptures", especially the legends, we find examples of half-truths.
Life is not composed of ideals any more than a house is made of only the roof; but it is highly important to recognizes what is not right, even if we yield to it, rather than elevate it to absolute rightness, because of the circumstances.
Only he who has even tried to practice the austerity of speech can realize the burning, purifying and illuminating power it has.
When the lips close upon an unpleasant truth or a pleasant untruth, the switch is on and the fire of speech austerity consumes baser instincts; it can even be physically felt in the forehead!

November 16


17 - The path of knowledge - Sraddhatraya Vibhaga Yoga - The Yoga of Divion of Threefold Faith.

XVII:16 - Serenity of mind, good-heartedness, purity of thought, self-control - this is called mental austerity.

With the passage of time and loss of practice, concepts change and words lose their meaning.
Who can explain what serenity (prasada) means?
This word "prasad" has been used several times in the Gita, but in common parlance it refers to fruits and sweetmeats distributed after worship in temples.
Who can fathom the depth of symbolism of the prasad?
The sweetmeat given to us is only an external symbol of the sweetness of disposition that God's grace bestows upon the devotee's mind.
"Serenity" is used for want of an accurate word.
It is not the gravity of a corpse, nor the sour-faced dryness of a pessimist, nor even the unsmiling, worried look of the ascetic who expects the volcano of suppressed emotions to erupt any moment.
Serenity is the radiant, glorious though unexcited joy that glows on the face from the presence of God within.
It is difficult to define or to describe, but easily recognizable when seen.
Good-heartedness is not to be mistaken for mere freedom from blood pressure and palpitation.
Krishna, you have caught us unawares - the heart cannot be good unless you and you alone reign supreme there!
The godless "good heart" is a hypocrite's haven, the devil's paradise.
When God is enthroned in it, goodwill prevails; incidentally, "goodwill" on earth is only God's will flowing freely through a pure egoless and divine heart.
The ego's goodwill is what one pays heavily for in business!
Silence and self-control are disciplines of the mind.
This verse is full of riddles.
We usually associate silence with speech - the absence of speech.
Real silence, however, is a desire-free, disturbance-free, peaceful mind.
When there is peace of mind, the self is seen, and all ignorance born, self-imposed limitations come to light and therefore disintegrate.
A mind that is thus ever peaceful, ever alert, is itself meditation.
Practice these and the ego will go.

November 17


17 - The path of knowledge - Sraddhatraya Vibhaga Yoga - The Yoga of Divion of Threefold Faith.

XVII:17 - This threefold austerity, practised by steadfast men with the utmost faith, desiring no reward, is said to be sattwic.
XVII:18 - The austerity which is practised with the object of gaining good respect, honour and worship, and with hypocrisy, is said to be rajasic, unstable and transitory.
XVII:19 - The austerity which is performed foolishly, by means of self-torture, or to destroy or injure others, is said to be tamasic.

It is strange that even the three types of austerity (of body, speech and mind) can be practiced in a rajasa or tamasa way! - though the words "This threefold austerity" may apply only to the first verse and the other two may allude to other forms of austerity - in which case the meaning is abundantly clear and simple.
The most noble deeds can be performed hypocritically, but the effect will be the very opposite of what is desired.
There is, however, a saving feature in such hypocritical good work and austerity - they are "unstable and transitory".
Hypocrisy has been unequivocally condemned in all our scriptures, but it has always existed.
Hypocrites have their little day!
It is true that their magic spell ends soon, soon enough to minimize the havoc caused.
The genius of the hypocrite uses a noble garb and sometimes it is impossible to detect him before he has achieved his purpose, though this is always a short-lived one.
Let us be thankful for small mercies!
The third category is an allusion to the demoniacal type of austerity.
It is difficult to see how it can satisfy the standards of the austerity of mind mentioned in verse 16.
There is, however, no limit to the perversions of the tamasa or deluded mind that can always interpret scriptures in its own way!

November 18


17 - The path of knowledge - Sraddhatraya Vibhaga Yoga - The Yoga of Divion of Threefold Faith.

XVII:20 - That gift which is given to one who does nothing in return, knowing it to be a duty to give in a fit place and time to a worthy person, that gift is held to be sattwic.
XVII:21 - And, that gift which is made with a view to receive something in return, or looking for a reward, or given reluctantly, is said to be rajasic.
XVII:22 - The gift which is given at the wrong place and time to unworthy persons, without respect or with insult, is declared to be tamasic.

The upanisad command us to give, to give with respect and love, and to give in plenty.
That is the spirit.
Our Master always gave and encouraged even indiscriminate giving.
Giving is good; and if the gift is given with a good heart, even a vicious man's heart will be touched and in due course, such a deed may have the effect that one might plan by withholding the gift - the reformation of the wicked man ("unworthy persons").
His conscience is awakened not so much by our denying help as by our giving it freely and making him feel: "Here is one who trusts me and gives, though I am cheating him; I should ensure that I deserve it."
This transformation is not achieved in a day, however.
There are others who are always complaining that they do not find a person worthy of helping or giving to.
They will never find one!
Does God give us food only because we deserve it?
Does the earth produce food only to be eaten by the deserving?
Which one of us truly deserves all the blessings one enjoys?
Moreover, what is ours in this world?
We only give away in charity what belongs to the Lord himself present in the other man!
Did we bring any wealth with us when we were born, or shall we take anything with us when we die?
Well, if you wish to do charity only to the deserving person, then keep that money and do not use it, or go and find the deserving person.
Do not use it for yourself, but give it.
You will immediately find there are many deserving persons in this world!

November 19

tat sat

17 - The path of knowledge - Sraddhatraya Vibhaga Yoga - The Yoga of Divion of Threefold Faith.

XVII:23 - 'Om Tat Sat', this has been declared to be the triple designation of Brahman. By that were created formerly the Brahmanas, the Vedas and the sacrifices.

The absolute needs no name!
God has no proper names or improper ones.
Incidentally, therefore, the names by which religions are known are also fictitious, man-made, faction-generating tools of the evil mind that perverts even truth for its false ends.
All religion is the individual's path to God-realization; what need has one to distinguish it, and from what?
It is when I wish to establish that "my" religion is superior to "your" religion, that I introduce names!
It is when I wish to assert that "my" God is real and "yours" unreal that I begin calling him names (sorry!).
"Om" has been declared to be the indicator of the infinite, absolute being.
Its proper intonation suggests fullness, perfection, and a subtle transcendence that is indescribable.
It is the simplest of all sounds, as simple as God himself.
In sound it is comparable to the seven colors of the solar spectrum that blend to form the white color.
When you listen to the distant noise of the market place or fair, when no particular sound is distinguishable, it is heard as one big roar of Om.
It is a mystic symbol of the infinite.
Meditation on Om and listening to the inner psychic Om-sound by closing the ears with the thumbs and listening with the right ear, are powerful tranquilizers of the wayward mind.
"Tat" is the word "that".
Not this, but that; where all that is created - phenomenal, material and non-eternal - is included in "this", and what remains when all "this" is negated, is "tat".
This "tat" is not non-existence, a mere negation or void, it is "sat" - the reality.
That reality is not something that is opposed to non-reality, but it is the indescribable substratum of all existence.
That reality alone exists and has nothing outside of itself; where is the need to call it by any name? Yet all names are God's.

November 20


17 - The path of knowledge - Sraddhatraya Vibhaga Yoga - The Yoga of Divion of Threefold Faith.

XVII:24 - Therefore, with the utterance of 'Om' are the acts of gift, sacrifice and austerity, as enjoined in the scriptures, always begun by the knowers of Brahman.
XVII:25 - Uttering 'Tat', without aiming at the fruits, are the acts of sacrifice and austerity, and the various acts of gift, performed by the seekers of liberation.
XVII:26 - 'Sat' is used in the sense of reality and of goodness; and also, O Arjuna, the word 'Sat' is used in the sense of an auspicious act.

There is really no difference between the implications of one of the three words and those of another.
All three have the same meaning and significance.
"Om tat sat" can roughly be translated into "the infinite is that reality".
The orthodox Hindu may regard it as a great mantra and believe that the words themselves have spiritual, psychic and even magic power; but their real value is in the psychological effect of reminding ourselves of the infinite nature of the reality which is the substratum of all creation.
It acts as a cleansing fire, purifying our heart of all impure, selfish motives and illumining the great reality within the inmost core of our being.
My Master used this formula frequently even during his routine office work.
The mantra silences the ego within and diverts the mind mind from "the world" to God, making us realize that he is the omnipresent reality whom we are serving in all, to whom we are directing our sacrifice or gift.
It has been said that this mantra has the power to transform all acts into holy ones; it is certain that one who keeps in mind the significance of the holy formula will never indulge in any unholy action.
It is good to cultivate the habit of thinking of God before, during and after the performance of every action.
This formula, or any other such formula, will help us here, provided it does not become a mechanical, meaningless, dull repetition.

November 21


17 - The path of knowledge - Sraddhatraya Vibhaga Yoga - The Yoga of Divion of Threefold Faith.

XVII:27 - Steadfastness, in sacrifice, austerity and gift, is also called 'Sat'; and also action in connection with 'Tat' is called 'Sat'.
XVII:28 - Whatever is sacrificed, given or performed, and whatever austerity is practised without faith, it is called Asat, O Arjuna; it is naught, here or hereafter.

The discussion on faith is thus beautifully wound up.
Adherence to the scripture is good.
It presupposes faith in the scripture and in God.
In the absence of a scripture it is permissible to pursue one's own nature, with faith in oneself.
Here it is good to bear in mind the threefold classification.
Whereas sattva is "close to the sat or truth", tamas is also a quality of nature; even the tamasa man is not damned for ever.
Since "sat" is the inner reality, remembrance of it helps us draw closer to it, thus increasing sattva.
This is the purpose of repetition of mantra.
Constant remembrance of God enables us to become godly: "sattvika".
"Remembrance" here is not an act of memory, for it relates to the reality that has to be discovered from moment to moment; we should remember to discover it!
Not only meditating upon the word "sat", but also upon its significance as the unchanging reality, will enable us to imitate that changeless-ness in our own life and actions.
This results in steadfastness - a quality that is the exact opposite of the diabolical fickleness of the hypocrite.
Steadfastness is the indication and the test of inner faith.
If there is no faith, however, the action is useless.
It is good to remind ourselves repeatedly, that selfless action is not soulless action, and that the desireless man is not a robot, mechanically responding to stimuli in a preset routine fashion.
He knows that action is nature's way of purifying itself, and thus life flows with no difficulty whatsoever.
Krishna's Gita is the very opposite of the gospel of inert and stupid activity.
It is unselfish but supreme dynamism.
Only the small ego stifles life; yoga is joyous participation in the divine will.

November 23

true renunciation

18 - Moksa Sanyasa Yoga - The Yoga of Liberation and Renunciation

XVIII:3 - Some philosophers declare that all actions should be abandoned as an evil; but there are yet other sages who maintain that acts of sacrifice, charity and penance should never be abandoned.
XVIII:4 - Hear from me the truth about abstinence, O Arjuna. Abstinence has been declared to be of three kinds.

Society in those days was divided into two sections.
There were those who followed the karma kanda (ritualistic portion) of the veda and to whom those rituals were too sacred ever to be abandoned.
There were the others who followed the jnana kanda (wisdom portion) of the veda and were convinced that to do anything was to invite rebirth, to enjoy or to suffer the consequences.
The basic philosophy of the latter is sound; but how few can realize that renunciation of the "world" means total abandonment of all attachment, even to one's own body and the modifications of one's own mind?
Krishna recognizes that that is the goal, though for its achievement no hypocritical abandonment of the world is necessary, but a revolution in the inner attitude, which he has already clearly stated: "While doing all your actions, feel you are not doing anything".
This necessarily implies that the samnyasi, who realizes, "I am not doing", is incapable of withdrawing from life or activity.
If, on the other hand, formal renunciation is overemphasized, then the evil pointed out on the previous page cannot be avoided.
Such renunciation cancels out the spirit of the scripture.
Who but the Lord can conclusively tell us what the true spirit of renunciation is?
Only he knows where and how the devil of human vanity quotes scripture to exploit the gullible.
Arjuna had also prayed to the Lord to be definite and conclusive in his instructions.
Hence, Krishna's declaration that what follows is the final truth.

November 24

without desire for rewards

18 - Moksa Sanyasa Yoga - The Yoga of Liberation and Renunciation

XVIII:5 - Acts of sacrifice, gift and austerity should not be abandoned, but should be performed; sacrifice, gift and also austerity, purifiy the wise.
XVIII:6 - But even these actions should be performed leaving aside attachment and the desire for rewards. This, O arjuna, is My certain conviction.

It has been said that Krishna's Gita is a synthesis of the best in Aryan and non-Aryan traditions.
Krishna accepts the ancient Aryan yajna (sacrifice), the non-Aryan tapas or austerity, synthesizes them and shows that this synthesis is superior to either of its components.
Then he rejects routine ritual (the vaidika sacrifices) and foolish tapas to give us buddhi yoga.
This is indeed the highest statesmanship.
Tapas or austerity has already been dealt with in great detail.
Suffice it to say here that simple life itself is tapas.
Simplicity enables one to be free from slavery to the world and makes charity possible.
Charity alters values.
What is mine, becomes another's by charity; and freedom from attachment spares me the worry concerning it.
Objects have value only on account of attachment!
Realization of this deflates the value of even those objects that we retain out of necessity; then they can be given away without leaving a dent in our heart.
Charity, too, has been dealt with earlier.
It is really giving away what actually does not belong to one!
But sacrifice, which to me sounds like making something sacred, something leading to self-knowledge, is self-sacrifice or the abandonment of all that one identifies one's self with.
In the ritual yajna, when pouring ghee into the fire one utters the mantra "svaha" which literally means "killing of the self."
It frees one from the prison-house of the ego, to roam in the realm of the infinite.
The ego is just an idea.
The assumption that it is real is one's only "possession" that must be sacrificed.
Then one sees that one's other possessions were not possessions at all and charity becomes natural.
All these should be performed without desire for rewards.
Charity done with an eye to name and fame is only payment of advertisement charges!

November 25

the mirror of buddhi

18 - Moksa Sanyasa Yoga - The Yoga of Liberation and Renunciation

XVIII:7 - The renunciation of obligatory action is improper; the abandonment of the same from delusion is tamasic.
XVIII:8 - He who abandons action on account of the fear of bodily trouble, he does not obtain the merit of renunciation by doing such rajasic renunciation.

Again, the razor 's edge of lord Krishna.
Here he mentions that one should not renounce obligatory duties (including the scripturally enjoined rituals); earlier he said that the performance of all these would only gain for us a holiday in heaven; and later again he commands us; "Abandon all dharma"!
Narada, in his Bhakti Sutra, also declares that the true devotee of the Lord has no use for worldly and scriptural duties.
How does one reconcile all these?
By practicing buddhi yoga.
Turn the mirror of buddhi (the value-giving discriminative faculty) towards God.
Recognize only God as the stable value, and let his light be reflected through the buddhi.
Let the mind and the senses function in that reflected light.
There is no need to abandon any duties, for when the time comes they will drop away.
When we go to sleep, we do not abandon the world; it fades into nothingness.
Let that also happen to the duties of the world.
However, the deluded man, by prematurely abandoning the world and its duties, only strengthens egoism!
"I am a holy man; this I shall not do, for it is beneath my dignity" - where is holiness in this trend of thought?
It is the seed of immense inner conflict.
There is yet another type of renunciation.
The man who cannot earn, renounces wealth.
Even in the practice of yoga, what we feel is difficult for us, we renounce with a high-sounding philosophy to justify it.
Man is unable to face the problems of family life and so with great fanfare renounces it.
That is not renunciation, but impotence, cowardice, and never leads one to the goal of life.
This, again, should not be misunderstood; the man who refuses to renounce "worldly life", even after realizing that it is painful, is attached to it!
Let the inner light of wisdom decide!

November 26

deserve his grace

18 - Moksa Sanyasa Yoga - The Yoga of Liberation and Renunciation

XVIII:9 - Whatever obligatory action is done, O Arjuna, merely because it ought to be done, abandoning attachment and also the desire for reward, that renunciation is regarded as satvic.
XVIII:10 - The man of renunciation, pervaded by purity, intelligent and with his doubts cut asunder, does not hate a disagreeable work, nor is he attached to the agreeable.

The wise man abandons what ought to be abandoned attachment and desire for reward.
He may adopt what the popular mind regards as the "monastic life", if he feels that that is his obligatory action.
But that is not because he is attached to his own ideas of holiness, or because he expects honor and worship.
(We have already been told that these cravings are demoniacal.)
His stable value is God. In him God is "awake", for the ego is in a comatose state.
His life progresses smoothly because he sees that he does not determine his own destiny.
With that enlightened understanding, what has to be done (God's will) is done without any thought of a reward or consequence.
There is no egoistic pushing on his part.
A word of caution here: we are again facing the razor's edge!
It is foolish to camouflage our own desire-prompted egoistic activities on the pretext that it is God's will that we should continue them.
The manifestations of the ego, lust, anger and greed, attachment and desire for reward, must be abandoned.
Non-abandonment of these will revive and maintain the ego.
This philosophy seems to be easy to understand and apply, but actually it is difficult for the simple reason that it elevates us so much, we are confused as to both direction and path.
If there is the least impurity of heart, delusion or non-intelligence present, and if there is the least doubt alive in the heart, the ego will once again play havoc in the garb of self-surrender.
Only God can guide us; we must ensure that we deserve His Grace.
We should constantly and vigilantly look within for the reality.
Then attachment and "possession" are realized to be unreal and are dropped by the mind.
When this happens, one lives in God, one realizes God.

November 27

all is divine harmony

18 - Moksa Sanyasa Yoga - The Yoga of Liberation and Renunciation

XVIII:11 - It is not possible for an embodied being to abandon actions entirely; but he who renounces the rewards of actions, is verily a man of renunciation.
XVIII:12 - The threefold fruit of action - evil, good and mixed - accrues after death to the non-abandoners, but never to the abandoners.

It is God's Will that has brought spirit and matter into being.
It is His Will that sustains this world-play by the projection of his apparent diversity.
The universe dances to his tunes.
The individual's own body and mind, being part of the universe, are caught up in this cosmic dance; who but God himself can stop it?
One who tries to stop the dance is egoistic and, therefore, cut off from God.
That kind of renunciation is delusion.
The true man of renunciation, on the other hand, renounces the desire for reward.
A little contemplation will reveal to us the utter stupidity of expecting a reward for something that is done by God's will, by his own instrument (each individual soul), with the help of objects of his own creation!
It is as if 'I' expected a reward for some work you have done, which is entirely illogical.
Abandonment of this delusion is true renunciation.
We then let God's will flow through us, without egoistic motive, and this itself is liberation or God-realization.
Karma binds only the deluded egoistic soul.
It has no meaning in God's eyes; for he is the all-pervading, eternal being.
He pervades heaven, hell and this world, but he also transcends them.
It is only the deluded soul that believes it does something, expecting some reward.
After death, it sometimes gets a good reward, sometimes an indifferent one and sometimes an evil one.
To one who has abandoned egoism and does God's will without personal profit-motive, to whom the whole universe is God's own manifestation and this world-play is a solo act by God - there is no pain, no pleasure, no sin, no virtue, no hell, no heaven.
Seen from that universal focus, which is God, all is divine harmony.

November 28

principle of egoism

18 - Moksa Sanyasa Yoga - The Yoga of Liberation and Renunciation

XVIII:13 - Learn from Me, O Arjuna, these five causes for the accomplishment of all actions, as declared in the Sankhya system:
XVIII:14 - the body, the doer, the various senses, the different functions of various sorts, and the presiding deity also as the fifth.

Look at it from any point of view you like; you cannot escape the conclusion that the self is not the doer or the enjoyer.
However, the doubter says: "But, I do feel the pain" or "But how can anything be done if I don't want to do it?"
That "but" is a dangerous conjunction, which muffles the voice of truth and amplifies the ego's alluring and deluding whisper.
Here Krishna flashes the light of truth on the truth.
As he said to Arjuna, so he says to every man:
"You say you will fight or you will not fight. You want to do what is right and avoid what is wrong.
You feel that that choice alone will determine whether you go to heaven or hell after death, whether you will have an auspicious or inauspicious birth.
All these hinge upon a central fallacy: the feeling that you are the doer! Now listen to my analysis."
"There are the five factors that enter the accomplishment of all actions: the body, which obviously seems to do and to en joy, is of course the first.
In that body itself we see the various subtle sense-organs which, to some extent, seem to be distinct from it.
The sense organs of knowledge and of action are Coordinated and they function - this is the third factor.
Then we have the gods who preside over these functions (this may also refer to the jiva or individualized self, or to the light in which the senses function - "deva" means light).
Finally, there is a mysterious principle of egoism, ignorance and delusion which identifies the functions and activities of all these with the self which is the silent witness, thus creating the idea of doer-ship."
If you look within, you suddenly discover that all your experiences are made possible by the intelligence that functions in you.
That intelligence is not yours, it is a fragment of the cosmic consciousness.
The ego, which arose with those experiences is also part of that consciousness; it, itself, does not exist.

November 29

an uninvited guest

18 - Moksa Sanyasa Yoga - The Yoga of Liberation and Renunciation

XVIII:15 - Whatever action a man performs by his body, speech and mind, whether right or the reverse, these five are its causes.
XVIII:16 - Now, such being the case, he who, owing to untrained understanding, looks upon his self as the agent, sees not, because he is of perverted intelligence.

The body, senses and the mind perform their duties with the energy invested in them by the divine nature of the Lord.
The Lord's own consciousness (apparently looked upon as the various deities) presides over the senses and carries on the activities of the world.
His energy, as the sun, the celestial body, illumines the objects of the world; his energy as the sun within, perceives the world through the medium of the eyes.
The self is but a silent witness of all these diverse functions.
This is one view.
From this view the "daivam" of the previous verse refers to the deities presiding over the various sense-functions.
The supreme Lord (daivam) has willed this universe into existence and he himself dwells within each body inspiring the mind and the senses to function.
'I' does nothing at all! "I do nothing, it is the Lord who does everything", feels the devotee of the Lord.
This is another view.
Whichever be the attitude adopted, in accordance with one's own training and temperament, and one's own discovery, the 'I' is seen to be a shady impostor who belongs neither to the material side nor to the spiritual side of one's being.
A story is told of how a vagabond entered a village where a four-day wedding feast was in progress.
Uninvited he entered the bride's house and received honor due to the members of the groom's party.
He mingled with the latter pretending to belong to the bride's party.
Then someone asked him: "Who are you?"
At that he quietly slipped away.
That is just what the ego does when confronted with the question, "Who is 'I'?"
It is a mirage, a shadow, a robber seen in a dream.
It is an uninvited guest, which can, however, cause a lot of havoc.

November 30

turn the gaze

18 - Moksa Sanyasa Yoga - The Yoga of Liberation and Renunciation

XVIII:17 - He who is free from the egoistic notion, whose intelligence is untainted, though he slays these people, he slayeth not; nor is he bound by the action.

This mysterious egoistic notion is the cause of all our sins and sufferings.
In fact it is this notion that sins and that suffers, too.
The 'I' creates its own ghosts desire and hatred, clings to them and fears them.
In the one it sees many and gets bewildered.
Forgetful of God, the supreme bliss, it is subjected to frustration.
Frantically working for happiness, it loses it!
Man walks the burning sands of the desert in order to quench his thirst at a far lake, only to find that the lake is a mirage.
How can these unreal causes produce such real effects?
Because in the darkness of unawareness the 'I' arises and thinks it is real, vainly imagining (and creating) evils and sufferings.
This is the only sin.
Hence our Master insisted again and again: "Turn the gaze".
When you turn the searchlight of truth on this mysterious 'I', you will discover, not the 'I' nor its vanishing trick, but the substratum for the 'I' and for the whole universe, which is God, Brahman, the paramatman.
Even a dry blade of grass cannot be wafted by the wind except by God's Will.
This has been the unanimous verdict of all sages, saints and prophets.
The whole universe is run by his will.
Actions do not bind; it is only the egoistic identification that binds.
The hateful murderer is sent to the gallows, yet the executioner gets paid for a similar action.
In war, the same action on a larger scale wins the hero a medal! Look within and you will know the difference.
The understanding and knowledge, "Thy will be done" frees us instantly, enabling us to perceive the truth, to experience that God is good, that the universe is good and that the soul is eternally good.
The 'I' was but a bad dream. Forget it.
But, beware, let the 'I' not create a God for you to fear, to love, to worship and to realize.
God here is the truth, the reality who is "present" when all thoughts march out, following the I-thought.

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